Common topics around project usage¶
Additionally to Django, a created project is based on many other tools you should know, here are their topics.
Previously we were using Compass that was a pain to manage with Ruby environment.
Boussole is full Python solution to build your CSS stylesheets from SASS sources.
You can install it in your virtualenv if you need a specific version or install globally at your system level.
Compass is a Ruby tool used to compile SASS sources in CSS.
A recent install of Ruby and Compass is required first for this purpose.
Often, we use webfonts to display icons instead of images because this is more flexible to use (can take any size without to re-upload it) and results on less files. It’s also more CSS friendly.
We use Icomoon service to build webfont because we can centralize their sources and the service generate a clean ZIP archive containing all needed stuff (all font kind, icon manifest, sample css, etc..).
Within our project We manage it through Django Icomoon to deploy webfont updates (using the downloaded ZIP) and to display an icon gallery.
Django Icomoon usage is a new feature (see History for details), it may not be allready configured in your project if too old. But you can easily add it to, it should be compatible from Django ‘1.4.x’ to ‘1.8.x’.
Just download the webfont ZIP from your Icomoon project, put it in your Django project and use the command line (adjust zip file path if needed):
django-instance icomoon_deploy Default icomoon.zip
Font files will be deployed to their directory in statics (defined in mod settings) then a SCSS file will be generated so you can directly recompile them to build your CSS.
When it’s done you can reach the gallery on:
You need to be authenticated to view the gallery.
There is allready a default webfont installed in your project with some default used icons like those ones required for Slick.js plugin.
In the past, assets management was painful with some projects, because their includes was often divided in many different templates. This was causing issues to update some library or retrieve some code.
Often it resulted also in pages loading dozen of asset files and sometime much more. This was really a bad behavior because it slowed pages loading and added useless performance charge on the web server.
This is why we use an asset manager called django-assets which is a subproject of webassets. Firstly read the webassets documentation to understand how is working its Bundle system. Then you can read the django-assets that is only related about Django usage with the settings, templatetags, etc..
How it works¶
Asset managers generally perform two tasks :
- Minimize the file weight with removing useless white spaces to have the code on unique line;
Some asset manager implement this with their own file processor, some other like webassets are just “glue” between the files and another dedicated compiler like yuicompressor.
Asset management is really useful within integration or production environments and so when developing, the manager is generally disabled and the files are never compiled, you can verify this with looking at your page’s source code.
Project have a
make assets command that is useful on integration and production environment to deploy and update your assets in the
static/ directory. In fact this command is always required in these environments when you deploy a new update. Also you should never use it on development environment because it can cause you many troubles.
What does this command :
- Remove some previous minified assets;
- Collecting all static files from your project and installed apps to your
- Use django-assets to compile all defined bundles using previously collected files;
- Re-collecting static files again to collect the compiled bundle files;
Static files directories¶
settings.py file you should see :
STATIC_ROOT = join(PROJECT_PATH, 'static')
It define the front static file directory. But never put yourself a file in this directory, it is reserved for collected files in integration and production environment only.
All static files sources will go in the
project/webapp_statics directory, it is defined in the assets mod:
ASSETS_ROOT = join(PROJECT_PATH, 'webapp_statics/') STATICFILES_DIRS += (ASSETS_ROOT,)
This way, we allways have separated directories for the sources and the compiled files. This is required to never commit compiled files and avoid conflicts between development and production environments.
Never, ever, put CSS stylesheets in your templates, NEVER. You can forget them and they will be deployed in production and forgeted, this can be painful for other developers that coming after you. So always add CSS stylesheets by the way of SCSS sources using Compass.
Sometimes, you will need to develop some new app package or improve them without to embed them within the project.
You have two choices to do that:
developbuildout variable to simply add your app to the developped apps, your app have to exists at the root of buildout project;
vcs-extend-developbuildout variable to define a repository URL to the package sources;
Even they have the same base name develop, these two ways are differents:
- The first one simply add a symbolic link to the package in your Python install without to manage it as an installed eggs, it will be accessible as a Python module installed in the Python virtual environment. This method does not require that your app have a repository or have been published on PyPi;
- The second one install the targeted package from a given repository instead of a downloaded package from PyPi, it act like an installed eggs but from which you can edit the source and publish to the repository. And so your app name have to be defined in the buildout’s egg variable, buildout will see it in
vcs-extend-developand will not try to install it from PyPi but from the given repository url;
In all ways, your apps is allways a full package structure that mean this is not a simple Python module, but its package structure containing stuff like
README file and
setup.py at the base of the directory then the Python module containing the code. Trying to use a simple Python module as a develop app will not work.
Which one to use and when¶
- If you want to develop a new package, it’s often much faster to create its package directory structure at the root of your buildout project then use it within
develop. You would move it to
vcs-extend-developwhen you have published it;
- If you want to develop an allready published package, you will use
vcs-extend-developwith its repository url, this so you will be able to edit it, commit changes then publish it;
Most of Emencia’s apps are allready setted within
vcs-extend-develop in the buildout config for development environment (
development.cfg) but disabled, just uncomment the needed one.
Take care, an Egg that is installed from a repository url is validated on its version number if defined in the
versions.cfg, and so if your develop egg contains a version number less than the one defined in
versions.cfg, buildout will try to get the most recent version from PyPi, so allways manage the app version number.
This is on the way to be deprecated since the PO-project server future is not known.
It aims to ease PO translations management between developpers and translation managers.
The PO-Projects client is pre-configured in all created projects but disabled by default. When enabled, its config file is automatically generated (in
po_projects.cfg), don’t edit this file because it will be regenerated each time buildout is used.
The principe is that developpers and translators does not have anymore to directly exchange PO files. The developpers update the PO to the translation project on PO-Project webservice, translators update translations on PO-Project service frontend and developpers can get updated PO from the webservice.
To use it, you will have first to enable it in the buildout config, to install the client package, fill the webservice access and buildout part. Then when it’s done, you have to create a project on PO-Project webservice using its frontend, then each required language for translation using the same locale names that the ones defined in the project settings.
There is only two available actions from the client :
- Push action
pushaction role is to send updated PO (from Django extracts) from the project to the PO-Project webservice.
Technically, the client will archive the locale directory into a tarball then send it to the webservice, that will use it to update its stored PO for each defined locales.
Common way is (from the root of your project):
cd project django-instance makemessages -a cd .. po_projects push
- Pull action
pullaction role is to get the updated translations from the webservice and install into the project.
Technically, the client will download a tarball of the latest locale translations from the webservice and deploy it to your project, note that it will totally overwrite the project’s locale directory.
Common way is (from the root of your project):
Then reload your webserver.
Note that the client does not manage your repository, each time you change your PO files (from Django
makemessages action or
pull client action) you still have to commit them.
Dr Dump is an utility to help you to dump and load datas from your Django project’s apps. It does not have any command line interface, just a buildout recipe (emencia-recipe-drdump) that will generate some bash scripts (
dataload) in your
bin directory so you can use them directly to dump your data into a
If the recipe is enabled in your buildout config (this is the default behavior), its bash scripts will be generated again each time you invoke a buildout.
Buildout will probably remove your dumps directory each time it re-install Dr Dump and Dr Dump itself will overwrite your dumped data files each time you invoke it dump script. So remember backup your dumps before doing this.
Note that Dr Dump can only manage app that it allready know in the used map, if you have some other packaged app or project’s app that is not defined in the map you want to use, you have two choices :
- Ask to a repository manager of Dr Dump to add your apps, for some exotic or uncommon apps it will probably be refused;
- Download the map from the repository, embed it in your buildout project and give its path into the
dependancies_maprecipe variable so it will use it.
The second one is the most easy and flexible, but you will have to manage yourself the map to keep it up-to-date with the original one.